The failure of the Nigerian power sector for the supply of adequate power supply to domestic households and industrial producers isn’t a thing of stories to most of the people who live here. The daily power supply is estimated at four hours, thus resulting in the highly bad state of the country’s basic infrastructure, e.g. water system, health care system, petroleum product distribution, agriculture, and education.

This has also caused a stunt within the expansion of the country’s ongoing economic development. Many families and businesses in Nigeria have to run one or more diesel-fueled generators to provide them with the facility they need to either run their businesses or household as a result of this energy crisis. This has also led many industries to travel away to a way better and more suitable environment.

In this article, i will discuss with you the major causes of energy crisis in Nigeria and the perfect solution to this energy crisis that can be used to improve the power supply in Nigeria when implemented.

light up Nigeria
TO LIGHT UP NIGERIA IS OUR GOAL

ENERGY CRISIS IN NIGERIA

We should also note that the country is blessed with an estimated reserve of 185 trillion cubic feet, 2.75billion tons and 35billion barrels of natural gas, coal, and crude oil, all this stated are non-renewable energy which is adequate to meet the electric power demand of sub-Saharan Africa for decades. In addition to this, Nigeria is endowed with several renewable sources of energy such as solar, biomass, and wind.

Despite all these sources of energy which can be used for energy generation, Nigeria is ranked one of the lowest electric power consumption per capita in Africa. There are also so many factors that contribute to this energy crisis faced in Nigeria.

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CAUSES OF ENERGY CRISIS IN NIGERIA?

Before we discuss the major causes of energy in Nigeria, let’s look at a little history

In the year 1896, electricity generation started but the first Nigerian Electricity Supply Company was established in 1929. By the year 2000, a state owned monopoly, the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) was in charge of the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power in Nigeria.

NEPA operated as a vertical integrated utility company and had a total generation capacity of about 6,200 MW from 2 hydro and 4 thermal power plants. This led to unstable and unreliable electric power supply situation in the country with people exposed to frequent power cuts and long period of power outages thus becoming a major cause of energy crisis.

In 2012, Nigeria generated approximately 4,000-5,000 megawatts of power for a population of 150 million people as compared with South Africa which is Africa’s second-largest economy generated 40,000 megawatts of power for a population of 62 million people.

In Nigeria, private generators of estimated 14-20 gigawatts of power make up for the shortfall. Thereby making 96% of industrial energy consumption produced off-grid using private generators. Now that we know a few histories, let’s go to the major causes of energy crisis in Nigeria

ENERGY CRISIS IN NIGERIA

MAJOR CAUSES OF ENERGY CRISIS IN NIGERIA

In Nigeria, one of the major causes of the energy crisis is the poor power supply is the use of fossil fuels otherwise known as coal, gas, oil. These are non-renewable energy sources and are being used up rapidly. Combustion of these fuels produces intolerable amounts of carbon dioxide to the environment contributing to turning the Earth’s atmosphere to a greenhouse with the harmful effect of increasing global warming.

Fossil fuels take millions of years to form and with heightened global demand they may be exhausted very soon. Here is a list of the major causes of energy crisis in Nigeria.

1. AGED EQUIPMENT

From our research, we found out that the use of aged equipment is one of cause of energy crises in Nigeria.most of the power infrastructure has been built for years. For instance 36% of plants have been used for over 20 years, 48% has been used for over 15 years and 80% are over 23 years. Thus, making them wear out and become inefficient.

2. UNPROFESSIONAL AND UNSKILLED MANPOWER

This is another cause of energy crisis because in Nigeria, we have some unskilled and unprofessional people who take up the job simply because they have connection with the person in control of the power sector. This hinders the growth of energy supply due to the fact that they can’t provide the services needed from them, you can’t expect someone who studied law to manage a power plant, what does he or she know about power?

So for us to improve our power sector, we need to employ the write people to do the job. This will definitely improve the power supply to a reasonable extent. So we need the help of experts to maintain, upgrade and expand power generation systems.

3. INADEQUATE STAFF TRAINING

This is another cause of energy crisis in nigeria, that is very similar to unskilled manpower which i mentioned above. most people who work in the nigerian power sector are not trained well enough, just like what one of my physics lecturers said to me ”THEORY AND PRACTICAL ARE TWO WORLDS APART” This simply means that, for the fact that you employed a first class graduate doesn’t mean he or she have the practical experience of what is happening in the field.

please understand that am not saying we shouldn’t employ fresh graduate but whoever is employed should be trained to keep up with the practical aspect of the work in the field.

Let me give a quick example, when I was living at Onitsha, Anambra state metropolitan city, part of our house got burnt due to a wrong connection from the so-called National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) officials.

This incident affected the transformer and for about 3 weeks we didn’t have any power supply, everybody went back to their power generating set. for me then, the NEPA officials were the only cause of the energy crisis in Nigeria.

4. ABSENCE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The world is changing everyday, and to be on this trend we have to adapt to the new system. The nigeria power sector lacks this act of adaptation, thats why we have the lowest power supply compared to other african countries like south africa, morocco etc who have started large investment in solar power system.

with adequate research and development, we are sure to improve the standard of the power supply. it should also be noted that many business have been should down due to this energy crisis in Nigeria.

Let me give you another quick example, my parent have a block industry in Lagos and the major challenge we face is power supply, we rely on power generating set all day so we can produce enough blocks to sell, these two negative effects on the Nigeria economy.

One of the negative side effects is that the price of the block will increase, the second negative effect is that business owners who cant afford to buy a big power generator will shut down or operate remotely which will also increase the number of unemployment.

5. INADEQUATE FUNDING

Funding is crucial for any sector or organization to grow, though commitment is the key. from our findings, we were able to understand that the power sector doesn’t receive enough funding from the government. An adequate power supply is an unavoidable prerequisite to any nation’s development, and electricity generation, transmission, and distribution are capital-intensive activities requiring huge resources of both funds and manpower.

BUHARI

Following the country’s constant power failure which is the most annoying thing which the citizens are facing currently together with the high rate of unemployment, we need to bear in mind that its not necessarily the NEPA issue but rather lack of funds to generate enough power for the whole citizens.

EMBEZZLEMENT OF FUNDS

It’s not news that most Nigerians take government work as an opportunity to serve their pocket rather than the public which they are meant to serve, the power is not an exception. some staff can mishandle equipment in order to embezzle the funds which will be allocated to replace the equipment, this is another reason why there is always an energy issue in Nigeria.

So the government might be doing their best to ensure that its citizens get the best but embezzlement of funds remains the major cause of the energy crisis in Nigeria. there have been many cases where the appropriate funds are not allocated to the right place.

OBASANJO HOLDING HIS HAND ON HIS HEAD

I will give you a clear scenario of such events, in my village, there was a provision for 50 poles of power line and a transformer, but the person in charge diverted about 20 poles to a neighboring village, so in this case its not necessarily the fault of the government bu the so-called NEPA officials.

POOR PRICING OF ELECTRICITY

The electricity distribution in Nigeria is poorly priced in the sense that for some reason there isn’t a standard value or price for the power supplied to each household or company or shops. for this reason, there have been lots of fluctuation and misunderstanding between the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) and their customers.

Despite the new strategy to counter this by using a prepaid meter, but to be frank with you this strategy isn’t working to some extent because many people have found a way to manipulate the system such that the meter only reads the bulbs and other small power-consuming devices. this is another major cause of the energy crisis in Nigeria because, for the system to function properly, they need funds which as citizens are cutting off through these manipulations.

MANIPULATION OF ELECTRICITY BILLS BY NIGERIANS

It’s obvious that nobody wants to admit their bad sides but as a Nigerian and a good citizen of their our dear country, I will say that we are another cause of the energy crisis in Nigeria. from the government down to the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) to the citizens we are all caught up here.

The use of prepaid meters was meant to address the issue of poor pricing and billing of electricity charges but Nigerians have one way or the other developed a strategy to manipulate the meter by illegal connection, some people will go as far as connecting the system to read just a small part of the power which they consume.

CHILDREN SINGING
NIGERIA IS OUR FATHER’S LAND, LETS PROTECT IT.

For us to have a constant power supply from the grid, we must play our roles responsibly, this energy crisis in Nigeria has forced many homeowners to install solar energy in their homes, though its the best choice but many Nigerians won’t endure the initial cost. I have many articles regarding the importance of solar energy in Nigeria and the world at large.

some top solar energy companies in Nigeria like innovative solar companies and other solar companies have made solar power system installation in Nigeria very affordable.

Now that we know a few major causes of the energy crisis in Nigeria, let’s look at ways this problem can be solved

WHAT IS THE SOLUTION TO ENERGY CRISIS IN NIGERIA?

While the need for improved performance of the power sector in Nigeria keeps rising, the need to provide a lasting solution to the energy crisis in Nigeria becomes the priority of good Nigerians who have the country’s interest at heart.

The solution to this energy crisis is renewable energy resources, it’s not just the perfect solution to Nigeria’s energy crisis but also the best form of energy generation both for Nigeria and the world at large. if you don’t know much about renewable energy, let me give you a brief definition of renewable energy.

Renewable energy is the energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Most times renewable energy is referred to as clean energy, and the goal here is to generate energy and provide a clean environment.

HOW WILL RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLVE ENERGY CRISIS IN NIGERIA?

Long-term investments in renewable energies like solar and wind have the potential to contribute significantly to electricity deficiency. The Federal Ministries of Environment and power and the Energy Commission of Nigeria should apply their blueprints of renewable energy technologies, in at least direct capturing the excess solar energy, abundant in Nigeria.

RENEWABLE ENERGY
NIGERIAN WILL HAVE A CONSTANT POWER SUPPLY AND CLEAN ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

Going solar in Nigeria has become very easy ever since we standard our campaign for a clean energy future in Nigeria, and it’s going quite well, thanks to the co-operating solar energy companies in Nigeria who are installing solar power systems at the least affordable prices.

CONCLUSION

Addressing the energy crisis in Nigeria wasn’t very easy because of fake data and statements from many Nigerians who are already frustrated with the inefficiency in the power supply. So we went on research to dig deep into the real causes of these problems and here we are with the relevant information.

Renewable energy is the best solution for the energy crisis in Nigeria due to the country’s lack of infrastructural development regarding the energy sector. Going solar remains the best choice for homeowners.

Many Nigerians don’t actually know much about solar energy and the ones who know the benefits tend to run away due to the initial cost of installing a solar power system. Because of this naihcotech has joined hands with innovative solar company, tonytechsolar and ageless technology to ensure that you get the best solar service at the best rate.

Hyundai has released a version of its Sonata hybrid that has solar panels to help charge its battery.
The Korean carmaker said up to 60% of the power for the car’s battery could be supplied if the solar roof was used for six hours a day.
The panels would provide enough power to propel the Sonata for 1,300km (800miles) a year, it added.
Hyundai said it planned to offer the roof as an optional extra on other models in its range.

Benefits of the Solar pv on the Roof

Fitting hybrids with panels that can harvest solar energy would boost fuel efficiency and lower carbon dioxide emissions said Hyundai.
It added that the mid-sized passenger car had an improved engine control system to ensure energy use was as efficient as possible.

Speaking of this car, the “Hybrids like the Sonata have smaller battery packs than all-electric cars, so a solar roof can make a bigger difference in charging. “Solar cells add cost and weight to cars, and it’s unclear how effective they can be in the real world.”

hybrid version of hyundai sonata with solar pv

Hyundai is working on a second-generation solar roof that would be semi-transparent to help light the car’s cabin.
The solar-roof equipped Sonata will be on sale in North America and Korea. Hyundai said it had no plans to sell it in other regions.
No price for the hybrid passenger car equipped with a solar roof has been given by Hyundai.

Low Emission Hybrid car


In the UK sales of low emission vehicles, including hybrids, fell for the first time in more than two years. According to figures from the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT), released last month.

The SMMT blamed confusing policies and “premature” removal of subsidies for such hybrids, as factors in the drop in sales.
Hyundai is not the first car manufacturer to use solar panels on a vehicle. The sun-powered charging systems are available as an option on the Toyota Prius, and the luxury Karma Revero is also available with one.

In addition, Dutch start-up Lightyear is working on an electric car that uses solar panels on its bonnet and roof to help charge the vehicle’s batteries.
This lightyear one car will cost approximately €149,000 (£137,000) ($171,037), that’s is a whopping (66.1 million Naira) when it hits the market in 2021.

stay up to date at naihcotech for more update on the release date

lightyear one electric car

Refference: BBC NEWS.

TO study online is very easy these days on like the old days when we don’t have to access to internet connections. Many Nigerians have always wanted to study abroad, due to the situation of our Nigerian universities. But despite that many of us are doing our best and hoping on God for wisdom. Though “Coronavirus has stopped us from going to school, but I will say that God always has a way to help His servants. So, the opportunity to study online while staying at home has presented itself. This time it’s coming from a highly reputable institution at a very low price. Unicaf University is offering all Nigerians the opportunity to study Internationally Recognised Degrees starting from only $99 per month.

You have the option to study the Online program and apply for this new offer until 30/04/2020.

This of course is one of their way to make sure that students don’t lose focus on academics considering the closure of schools due to the outbreak of “COVID-19”. Unicaf University is an independent, organization accredited by the British Accreditation Council based in the UK (Zambia and Malawi). Combining the best elements of international education, offering high quality and recognized qualifications. Choose your favorite program to study online at Unicaf University and here to apply for Unicaf Scholarship.
 
Please all Nigerians who seek to study online at Unicaf University should endeavor to take this opportunity. Some people might be asking. How do I make payments? Don’t panic about that, click on the link and follow the instructions. I wish you find this helpful and check back at naihcotech for more updates.

The working principle of a refrigerator is basically through evaporation. To clearly understand this, we need to look at the second law of thermodynamics. The law states that if a cold object is placed next to a hot object, the cold object will become warmer and the hot object will become cooler. A refrigerator does not cool items by lowering their original temperatures; instead, an evaporating gas called a refrigerant draws heat away, leaving the surrounding area much colder.

To understand more about how evaporation works. You need to know that anytime a substance evaporates, it takes up heat to do so. That’s why we get cold when we are wet, and even get colder when you stand in front of a fan. Because the breeze from the fan makes the water evaporate and making you colder. That’s why people use to keep things cold by putting them in wet polythene sacks and hanging them from trees.

In this article, I will take a look at the science of a refrigerator. Specifically the different parts of a refrigerator and how they actually work together to preserve our food for extended periods.
But before that, let me put you through the different parts of a refrigerator and how they operate.

The compressor:

the compressor

The refrigeration process begins with the compressor. This compressor consists of a piston driven by a motor to “suck in” and compress the refrigerant in a cylinder. This refrigerant is compressed until it becomes very hot from the increased pressure. This hot gas flows through the coils behind the refrigerator, which allow excess heat to evaporate into the surrounding.

The Expansion Valve:

A Thermostatic expansion valve
A thermostatic expansion valve

The expansion valve is what reduces the temperature of gas as well as its pressure. It also controls the flow of the refrigerant or coolant into the evaporator. This small device is located at the inner back of the refrigerator and it’s sensitive to temperature change of the coolant.

The Evaporator:

photo credit: quora

This is the visible metallic finned tubes we see anytime we open up a refrigerator. Usually made in gold or silver color. This metal is the actual thing that cools the thing we put inside the refrigerator. The finned tubes absorb heat blown through a coil by a fan. The evaporator absorbs heat from what we kept inside, and as a result of this heat, the liquid refrigerant turns into vapor.

The Condenser:

the condenser of a refrigerator
the condenser is where heat is dumped

This is where the refrigerant releases its heat. The condenser consists of a coiled set of tubes with external fins(usually black in color). It helps in the liquefaction of the gaseous refrigerant by absorbing its heat and subsequently expelling it to the surroundings. This is why the back portion of the refrigerator is always hot.

The Working Principle of a Refrigerator

The working principle of a refrigerator is based on the vapor compression and refrigeration cycle. To simplify this further, the refrigerator is an inverse heat engine which transfers heat from a cold region to a hot region. This of course is against the natural flow of heat from a hot region to a cold region. Thus, it requires power. When you pass a low-temperature liquid close to objects that you want to cool, heat from those objects transfers to the liquid, which evaporates and takes away the heat in the process.

Now let’s. get to the step by step working principle of the refrigerator. The refrigerant flows from the compress down to the evaporator. But before then let me remind you also that the refrigerant in modern refrigerators does no longer uses chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). This is due some environmental hazards which associate with it like depletion of the ozone layer. Thus, modern refrigerators uses HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane),which is environmental-friendly.

The refrigeration process starts with the compressor. The coolant is compressed until it becomes very hot from the increased pressure. Now the hot gas in the coils of the condenser meets the cooler air temperature of the kitchen, it becomes a liquid. Then this liquid is forced through a device called the expansion valve, which goes into the evaporator coils inside the freezer and the fridge. This is where it experiences a pressure drop and once again becomes a cool gas. It then absorbs heat from the contents of the fridge and the whole cycle repeats again.

The refrigerator cycle
photo credit: butterfly field

visite naihcotech.com to learn more about the working principle of Air Conditioner

The effects of Radiation can cause damage to tissue and/or organs depends on the dose of radiation received. Or the absorbed dose which is expressed in a unit called the gray (Gy). The potential damage from an absorbed dose depends on the type of radiation and the sensitivity of different tissues and organs.


Nuclear radiation, unlike the radiation from a light bulb or a microwave, is energetic enough to ionize atoms by knocking off their electrons. This ionizing radiation can damage DNA molecules directly. By breaking the bonds between atoms. Or it can ionize water molecules and form free radicals. Which are highly reactive and also disrupt the bonds of surrounding molecules, including DNA.

What is Ionizing Radiation

biological effect of ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation is a type of energy which atoms emit in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles.
Ionizing radiation happens when the atomic nucleus of an unstable atom decays and starts releasing ionizing particles.
When these particles come into contact with organic material, such as human tissue. They will damage them if levels are high enough, in a short period of time. This can lead to burns, problems with the blood, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and central nervous system, cancer, and sometimes death.
People are expose to natural sources of ionizing radiation, such as in soil, water, and vegetation, as well as in human-made sources, such as x-rays and medical devices

Applications of radiation

Radiation is all around us and it applies safely in many applications. Effects of radiation should always be noted.
Ionizing radiation has many beneficial applications, including uses in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Sometimes, it applies to low-level laser therapy.

In medicine, X-rays and other forms of radiation also have a variety of therapeutic uses. When used in this way, they are most often intended to kill cancerous tissue, reduce the size of a tumor, or reduce pain. For example, radioactive iodine (specifically iodine-131) is frequently used to treat thyroid cancer.

Some geologist uses some form of radioactive substances to determine the ages of fossils and other objects through a process called carbon dating. This process have been very helpful in determining ages and compositions of rocks and so many mineral resources.

The agricultural industry makes use of radiation to improve food production and packaging. Plant seeds, for example, have been exposed to radiation to bring about new and better types of plants. Besides making plants stronger, radiation can be used to control insect populations, thereby decreasing the use of dangerous pesticides.

Exposure to very high levels of radiation, such as being close to an atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome (“radiation sickness”). It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to low levels of radiation encountered in the environment does not cause immediate health effects, but is a minor contributor to our overall cancer risk.

What is Radiation Sickness

Radiation poisoning happens when a radioactive substance gives off particles that get into a person’s body and cause harm. Different radioactive substances have different characteristics. But the effects of radiation depend majorly on the dose of exposure. They can harm and help people in different ways, and some are more dangerous than others.

Normally, radiation occurs in a safe environment. Whether or not it becomes dangerous depends on:

  • The use of the radiation
  • how strong the radiation is
  • how often the exposure occurs
  • what type of exposure occurs
  • how long exposure lasts

A dose of radiation from a single x-ray is not normally harmful.
Activity is a measure of the amount of a radionuclide present. It is expressed in a unit called the becquerel (Bq): one becquerel is one disintegration per second.

The half-life is the time required for the activity of a radionuclide to decrease by decay to half of its initial value. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time that it takes for one half of its atoms to disintegrate. This can range from a mere fraction of a second to millions of years (e.g. iodine-131 has a half-life of 8 days while carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years).

What Part of the Body Does Radiation Affect?

The risk of illness depends on the dose of radiation exposure. Very low doses of radiations are all around us all the time, and they do not have any effect. It also depends on the area of the body that is exposed.

  • Hair
    The losing of hair quickly and in clumps occurs with radiations exposure at 200 rems or higher.
  • Brain
    Since brain cells do not reproduce, they won’t be damaged directly unless the exposure is 5,000 rems or greater. Like the heart, radiations kills nerve cells and small blood vessels and can cause seizures and immediate death.
  • Thyroid
    The thyroid gland is sensitive to radioactive iodine. Insufficient amounts, radioactive iodine can destroy all or part of the thyroid. By taking potassium iodide, one can reduce the effects of exposure.
  • Blood System
    When exposure of about 100 rems occurs, the blood’s lymphocyte cell count will reduce, leaving the victim more vulnerable to infection. This is often referred to as mild radiations sickness. Early symptoms of radiation sickness mimic those of “flu” and may go unnoticed unless a blood count is done.
  • The Heart
    Intense exposure to radioactive material at 1,000 to 5,000 rems would do immediate damage to small blood vessels and probably cause heart failure and death directly.
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
    Radiation damage to the intestinal tract lining will cause nausea, bloody vomiting, and diarrhea. This occurs when the victim’s exposure is 200 rems or more.
  • Reproductive Tract Though reproductive tract cells divide rapidly. These areas of the body can damage at rem levels as low as 200. Long-term, some radiation sickness victims will become sterile.

Though these radiations affects our body system most often but that’s not a panic. The fatality of radiation depends on the dose of which u are exposed to.

What Radiation Dose is Dangerous?

Radiations dosage can be measured in various ways. Some of the units used are Grays, Sieverts, rems, and rads. They are used in a similar way, but 1 rad is equivalent to 0.01 Gray.

Below 30 rads: Mild symptoms will occur in the blood
From 30 to 200 rads: The person may become ill.
From 200 to 1,000 rads: The person may become seriously ill.
Over 1,000 rads: This will be fatal.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), radiation sickness, or acute radiations syndrome (ARS) is diagnosed when:

A person receives over 70 rads from a source outside their body
The dose affects the whole body, or most of it, and is able to penetrate to the internal organs
The dose is received in a short time, usually within minutes.
The effective dose is used to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm.

What Age Does Radiation Affect More?

Children and fetuses are especially sensitive to radiation exposure. The cells in children and fetuses divide rapidly, providing more opportunity for radiations to disrupt the process and cause cell damage. The effects of radiations on children are high. EPA considers differences in sensitivity due to age and sex when revising radiations protection standards.

If the radiations dose is low and/or it occurs over a long period of time (low dose rate), the risk is substantially lower because there is a greater likelihood of repairing the damage. There is still a risk of long-term effects such as cancer, however, that may appear years or even decades later. The effects of this type will not always occur, but their likelihood is proportional to the radiation dose. This risk is higher for children and adolescents, as they are significantly more sensitive to radiation exposure than adults.

Epidemiological studies on populations exposed to radiation, such as atomic bomb survivors or radiotherapy patients, showed a significant increase of cancer risk at doses above 100 mSv. More recently, some epidemiological studies in individuals exposed to medical exposures during childhood (paediatric CT) suggested that cancer risk may increase even at lower doses (between 50-100 mSv).


Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations may induce brain damage in fetuses following an acute dose exceeding 100 mSv between weeks 8-15 of pregnancy and 200 mSv between weeks 16-25 of pregnancy. Before week 8 or after week 25 of pregnancy human studies have not shown radiation risk to fetal brain development. Epidemiological studies indicate that the cancer risk after fetal exposure to radiations is similar to the risk after exposure in early childhood.

Unit of measurement of radiations

The sievert (Sv) is the unit of effective dose that takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs. It is a way to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The Sv takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs.

The Sv is a very large unit so it is more practical to use smaller units such as millisieverts (mSv) or microsieverts (μSv). There are one thousand μSv in one mSv, and one thousand mSv in one Sv. In addition to the amount of radiation (dose), it is often useful to express the rate at which this dose is deliver (dose rate), such as microsieverts per hour (μSv/hour) or millisievert per year (mSv/year). Beyond certain thresholds, radiation can impair the functioning of tissues and/or organs and can produce acute effects such as skin redness, hair loss, radiation burns, or acute radiation syndrome. These effects are more severe at higher doses and higher dose rates. For instance, the dose threshold for acute radiation syndrome is about 1 Sv (1000 mSv).

What are the symptoms of radiation Exposure

Radiation sickness can be acute, happening soon after exposure, or chronic, where symptoms appear over time or

after some time, possibly years later.

The signs and symptoms of acute radiation poisoning are:

vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea
loss of appetite
malaise, or feeling unwell
headache
rapid heartbeat
Symptoms depend on the dose, and whether it is a single dose or repeated.

A dose of as low as 30 rads can lead to:

loss of white blood cells
nausea and vomiting
headaches
A dose of 300 rads dose may result in:

temporary hair loss
damage to nerve cells
damage to the cells that line the digestive tract
Stages of radiations sickness
Symptoms of severe radiations poisoning will normally go through four stages.

Prodomal stage: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, lasting from a few minutes to several days

Latent stage: Symptoms seem to disappear, and the person appears to recover

Overt stage: Depending on the type of exposure, this can involve problems with the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematopoietic, and central nervous system (CNS)

Source of Radiations

The many activities that can expose people to sources of radiations include:

watching television
flying in an airplane
passing through a security scanner
using a microwave or cell phone
Smokers have a higher exposure than non-smokers, as tobacco contains a substance that can decay to become polonium 210.

Astronauts have the highest exposure of anyone. They may be expose to 25 rads in one Space Shuttle mission.

Preventive Measures against Radiation Exposure

WHO has established a radiation program to protect patients, workers, and the public against the health risks of radiation exposure under planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations. Focusing on public health aspects of radiation protection, this program covers activities related to radiations risk assessment, management and communication.

Damage by radiations is irreversible. When a cell damages, it does not repair itself. Until now, there is no way for medicine to do this, so it is important for someone who is expose to seek medical help as soon as possible. Possible treatments include:
Removing all clothing and Rinsing with water and soap.
Use of potassium iodide (KI) to block thyroid uptake if a person inhales or swallows too much radioiodine


Exposure to radiations can also be treated with Prussian blue, given in capsules, can trap cesium and thallium in the intestines and prevent them from being absorbed. This allows them to move through the digestive system and leave the body in bowel movements.


Another method of treatment is with Filgrastim, or Neupogen stimulates the growth of white blood cells. This can help if radiation has affected the bone marrow.
Depending on exposure, radiations can affect the whole body. For cardiovascular, intestinal, and other problems, treatment will target the symptoms.

The Effects of 5G Network

The introduction of the fifth-generation network 5G, the all-powerful cellular technology for the next generation smartphones, is impending. What is the effects of 5G network? But the conspiracy theory about the new 5G cellular technology that its radiations are capable of destroying the immune system, cause oxidative damage that can cause premature aging, disrupt cell metabolism, and potentially lead to other diseases through the generation of stress proteins. Some articles cite research studies and opinions by reputable organizations like the World Health Organization. the question is; What health risk link to the new 5G network?

What is 5G Networks

The fifth generation of cellular technology “5G” is a wireless communications technology supporting cellular data networks used for communications devices (mostly mobile phones). In 2019 many countries launched 5G network and started commercial operation. 5G mints to deliver data rates that are 10 to 100 times faster than current 4G networks. And network latency will drop from 30ms to about 1ms, ideal for video game streaming, online video. Users should expect to see download speeds on the order of gigabits per second (Gb/s). Much greater than the tens of megabits per second (Mb/s).

5G logo
5G network is the fastest cellular network technology

How Dangerious is 5G Network?

Concerns about what is the effects of 5G network are the latest iteration of decades of headlines about the dangers of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation radiate from electrically charged particles. These particles travel in vacuum as well as through air and other substances. Electromagnetic radiation causes changes in physiological indices, genetic effects, and immune function. However, these effects of radiation cause no harm to your immune system. As Dr Clarke (associate professor in cellular microbiology at the University of Reading.). Says on BBC World News.

she quotes “Your immune system can be dipped by all sorts of things – by being tired one day, or not having a good diet. Those fluctuations aren’t huge but can make you more susceptible to catching viruses. ” While very strong radio waves can cause heating. 5G is nowhere near strong enough to heat people up enough to have any meaningful effect. “Radio waves can disrupt your physiology as they heat you up, meaning your immune system can’t function. But [the energy levels from] 5G radio waves are tiny and they are nowhere near strong enough to affect the immune system. There have been lots of studies on this.”

This is a piece of clear evidence that the conspiracy theory that 5G network cause all sorts of diseases have no proof. Some articles on social media also rumor that corona virus is caused by 5G network.

Can 5G Network Kill you?

The answer is no!. 5G network is simply a new generation of mobile internet. The claimed radiation from 5G Network is no different from the previous 4G and 3G Networks.
Phone networks use microwaves of a very specific frequency to deliver the internet to your iPhone or Android mobile. In the UK, 4G signals generally sit between 800MHz and 2.6GHz on the electromagnetic spectrum.

Though 5G is a little higher at 3.4GHz to 3.6GHz. But that’s very small compared microwaves which goes up to 300GHz. And visible light comes in at a range of around 430THz to 770THz. That’s more than a thousand times higher than the maximum microwave – and 100,000 higher than 5G Network. 5G is low-frequency radiation, far below infrared and visible light. In fact, it’s essential that 5G is low-frequency because higher frequencies are less useful at delivering mobile signals over large areas.
This level of radiation is safe otherwise, the visible light from our televisions would have killed us a long time ago. Even very powerful low-frequency radiation won’t cause any health issue. For instance, microwaves are used in ovens to provide a heating effect. But phone signals are far less powerful. From all indications, any rumor that 5G network has any health risks are all lies.

Nigerians Reaction To 5G Network

corona virus and 5G Network

Based on the conspiracy theory and misinformation between Nigerians and 5G network, as regards the possible hazardous health effects that the 5G network might have on individuals, Nigeria’s tech journalists have their best to clarify and educate Nigerians on 5G and its effect on health. The Nigeria Information Technology Association (NITRA) has set out a few facts and knowledgeable notes that should enlighten Nigerians on the 5G issue.

In a statement the association made, the chairman, Mr. Chike Onwuegbuch quotes:

“5G technologies are expected to support applications such as smart homes and buildings, smart cities, 3D video, work and play in the cloud, remote medical services, virtual and augmented reality and massive machine-to-machine communications for industrial automation. 3G and 4G networks currently face challenges in supporting these services,” The Chairman explained.

The Chairman also stated that despite the alleged conspiracy theory that the 5G is somehow responsible for the COVID-19 virus, it is utterly impossible that that theory is legitimate because there is currently no 5G spectrum in the nation for the network to operate on so it is therefore impossible for the network to function in the country. Still following the allegations that 5G network is somehow responsible for the virus,

The World Health Organization documented that “after much research performed, no adverse health effect has been causally linked with exposure to wireless technologies.” COVID-19 is in fact a respiratory disease. Mr. Chike also went further to say that Nigerians should only source for information from reputable sources such as International Telecommunications Union (ITU); the World Health Organisation (WHO), the nation’s telecommunication regulatory body, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), and the supervisory Ministries, the Ministry of Communications and Digital Economy and the Ministry of Health.

Which Country supports 5G Network?

5G Network is the fastest network now. Many countries have adopted the swift life of 5G, and have been judiciously applied in different sectors like; Automobiles, Fixed wireless, Wireless video transmission for broadcast applications.
The following country have adopted 5G Network;
China
Japan
Thailand
United State
United Kingdom
India
Hong Kong
Ireland…etc. check more
many countries around the world have tested and successfully launched their 5G network.

WHAT DO U THINK ABOUT 5G NETWORK?

SWITCHING TO 5G SOON?

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The concept of laser light

A laser is an optical device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
LASER is an acronym for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”.
A laser differs from other sources of light because it exhibits some special properties like; coherence, monochromatic, directionality, and high intensity.
since the invention of laser in 1960 by Theodore Harold.
laser has been widely applied in many fields of medicine. An example is the musculoskeletal healing process of Low-Level Laser Light Therapy(LLLT). Due to its ability to generate single wave-length.

Low-Level Laser Therepy(LLLT)

Low-level laser therapy is a form of medical treatment that applies low-level lasers light or light-emitting diodes to the surface of the body. It is also called photobiology or biostimulation.
Due to its ability to produce single wave-length. It’s a non-invasive source of treatment for musculoskeletal pathologies. Low-Level Laser Light(LLLT) emits no heat, sound, or vibration.

How Effective is Low-Level Laser Therapy(LLLT)

Studies have shown that the use is Low-Level Laser in the treatment of neck pain, tendinopathy, and possibly, chronic joint disorders can be considered moderately effective. (LLLT) affects the function of connective tissue cells (fibroblasts). Accelerate connective tissue repair and act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Lasers with different wavelengths. Varying from 632 to 904 nm applies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
Whereas high-power lasers apply in medicine to cut or destroy tissue. That the application of low-power lasers relieves pain or stimulates and improves cell function.

Is Low-Level Laser Therapy FDA Approved?

The question is often asked; is this low level laser approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which began regulating medical devices including low level lasers in the late 1980s. Technically, the FDA does not approve lasers.

FDA certificate of registration

The first step for any company that wants to sell lasers is to register the instrument for safety. The FDA determines safety by the potential for risk to the human eye at 20 centimeters. An important feature in classifying lasers depends on whether the laser is culminated – that is the beam comes to a point, or if the beam is linear and dissipates as the laser is moved further away. Following is a simplified explanation of the five laser classifications:4

Class 1 is a laser that will not cause harm regardless of length of exposure and is considered a non-significant risk device. An example of this is the laser in bar code check out systems.

Class 2 is a low power visible light laser (<1mW) that may cause damage to a person’s eyes if exposed for a long period of time. Examples are some laser pointers and range finding equipment.

Class 3a is continuous wave laser (1-5 mW) that can cause harm to the eyes if exposed for a long enough period of time. Examples are laser pointers and laser scanners. This class of laser shouldn’t direct to the eyes.

Class 4 is an intermediate power laser (5-500 mW or pulsed 10 J/cm² ). Uses are spectrometry and entertainment light shows. Direct viewing, or even diffuse reflections of the beam, will cause harm to the human eye and protective eyewear should be worn.

Class 5 are high power cutting lasers (>500mW or pulsed >10J/cm²). The direct beam and diffuse reflections are harmful to eyes and skin. Protective measures should be taken. Lasik eye surgical lasers are an example of this type of laser.

FDA assigns accession numbers to low-level laser instruments which are under registration for proper identification. After the registration, instruments for human use the direction of an Investigational Review Board (IRB) or used as a veterinary laser.

Second Step For Complete Registration

The second step is to complete clinical trials under the direction of an IRB and apply for the FDA for pre-market clearance. However, on getting the pre-market clearance, the company may make claims that their laser can treat the condition that was studied in the clinical trials.

Please note that getting pre-market clearance is not a guarantee that the laser is use to treat anything. Though some companies take the freedon of clearance to advertise beyound their clearance. But luckily the Federal Trade Commission regulates untruthful adverts.

Another way to get the FDA’s blessing to sell lasers is by applying for 510k clearance. This application requires less time and does not require clinical trials. A company submits an application with the claim that their laser has some of the exact same features as a previously-cleared device. While the 510k approach is much quicker, it has led to several lawsuits for patent violations.

Some lasers, cleared under the 510k using another laser company’s clinical trial, are no longer available due to the legal ramifications. There are currently over 35 different low-level laser instruments clear by the FDA, either by clinical trials or 510k applications. Many of the 510k clearances are based upon older heat-producing laser instruments on which the patents have expired. These companies often make claims that their laser treats anything that heat would treat.

However, Low-Level Laser contradicts treatment of the following illnesses;
  • Eyes: Do not aim laser beams into the eyes and everyone present should wear appropriate safety spectacles.
  • Cancer: Do not treat over the site of any known primary carcinoma. Or secondary metastasis unless the patient is undergoing chemotherapy. LLLT reduces side effects such as mucositis.
  • Pregnancy: Do not treat directly over the developing fetus.
  • Epileptics: Be aware that low frequency pulsed visible light (<30Hz) might trigger a seizure in photosensitive, epileptic patients.

For a clear and more detailed explanation of low-level laser therapy, please visit this page to learn more

Expensive luxurious cars are not just a mode of conveyance. Its a piece of art, cherished and appreciated even after many years of its production. Big brands like Rolls Royce, Lamborghini, Aston martin are often listed in some of the most expensive cars in the world, they are out of reach of many customers, as they are often designed purely for rich collectors of expensive cars.

top 10 most expensive car

The list of top 10 most expensive car in the world. The interesting thing about expensive luxurious cars is that most of them are not sold out to just any customer even if u have the money to pay for it. Like the case of ferrari pininfarina sergio-this luxurious supercar were sold to some choosen customers by ferrari company. Revealed at the Geneva auto show, Bugatti La Voiture Boire is a combination of speed, technology and luxury. In this collection we will show you the most expensive cars and why the are expensive. Keep calm and feed your eyes.

10. ASTON MARTIN VALKYRIE-
PRICE:$3.2 Million_(NGN 1.17 Billion)

Aston Martin Valkyrie is a renovation of the old Aston Martin-Red Bull AM-RB 001. Newey, renowned aerodynamicist behind Red Bull’s expensive and award-winning sports cars in the Formula 1 tracks. Devised an aerodynamic scheme, this hypercar can with some great features which include: A 6.5-liter V12 produces 1,160 horsepower (865 kilowatts) and 664 pound-feet (900 Newton-meters) of torque, meaning its top speed is above 200 miles per hour (321 kilometers per hour).

9. BUGATTI VEYRON VIVERE BY MANSORY(LIMITED EDITION)
PRICE:$3.4 Million-(NGN 1.25 Billion
)

This German car has an awesome lacquered carbon-fiber body along with a new spoiler package providing new diffusers. Bugatti Veyron Vivere has a smarter cabin and front grill, larger side scoops, a shortened hood and a 1,200-horsepower (894-kilowatt) Veyron engine underneath. Top speed is a blistering 254 miles per hour (408 kilometers per hour).

8. MCLAREN P1 LM
PRICE:$3.6 Million-(NGN 1.32 Billion)

This ultimate hybrid supercar is one-of-its-kind. McLaren F1 is a clone successor to the McLaren F1. With a hybrid system that develops 1035hp through its gasoline engine and a gold plating surrounding the engine bay with a 3.8 liter twin-turbo V-8. This supercar is lowered by 1.4 inches which allows it to reach from 0-300kmph in just 12.8 seconds.

7. BUGATTI CHIRON SUPERSPORT 300 +
PRICE:$3.9 Million-(NGN 1.43 Billion)

This flash supercar is a two-seater sports car with a mid-engine developed and manufactured by Bugatti Automobiles. Released in 2016 geneva auto show. It was designed by Achim anschetteidt and his crew member in Mosheim, France. The SuperSport 300 + is a road-going version of that car, meant to celebrate the occasion. Limited to just 30 units. The SuperSport 300+ is a beautiful version of the Chiron, with flowing, slippery bodywork, and a sweet stripe.

expensive cars
expensive cars

6. LAMBORGHINI VENENO
PRICE:$4.5 Million-(NGN 1.65 Billion)

Looking almost like an alien space capsule. Lamborghini pulled a more-powerful iteration of the Aventador’s 6.5-liter V12. Now producing 740 horsepower (552 kilowatts) and 509 pound-feet (609 Newton-meters) of torque, which gave it the ability to sprint to 60 miles per hour (96 kilometers per hour) in a blistering 2.9 seconds. Having one of these cars in your garage will be wonderful. Think about it and check your account balance.Smile.

expensive cars
expensive cars
expensive cars

5. KOENIGSEGG CCXR TREVITA
PRICE:$4.8 Million-(NGN 1.76 Billon)

Koenigsegg Automotive AB is a Swedish manufacturer of high-performance sports cars.
Koenigsegg introduced it’s “most-affordable” model, the Jesko. Koesenigsegg CCXR Trevita remains the most expensive street-legal produced car in the world. Finished in a proprietary Diamond Weave finish exterior (essentially carbon fiber covered in diamonds). The Koenigsegg is motivated by a twin-turbocharged 4.8-liter V8 with 1,004 horsepower and 797 pound-feet of torque. This is for the rich collectors of luxury cars.

expensive cars
expensive cars
expensive cars
expensive cars

4. PAGANI HUAYRA IMOLA
PRICE:$5.4 Million-(NGN 1.98 Billion)

First announced in September of 2019, the Pagani Huayra Imola is the dialed-up hypercar of our dreams. Pagani Imola also has 827 horsepower (617 kilowatts) and 811 pound-feet of torque (1,100 Newton-meters) from the AMG-derived twin-turbocharged 6.0-liter V12. This makes it the most powerful Pagani ever, up 36 horsepower from the recent Huayra BC Roadster. We love the revised aero touches like the massive rear wing and roof scoop, which harken back to the Zonda era. Pagani Imola had only five editions.

expensive cars
expensive cars
expensive cars

3. BUGATTI CENTODIECI
PRICE:$9 Million-(NGN 3.30 Billion)

Bugatti debuted the Centodieci at Pebble Beach car week, An ultra-rare and super-expensive model which is limited to just 10 editions. The car is a modern throwback to the Bugatti EB110. Bugatti centodieci sprints from 0 to 100km/h in 2.4 seconds,to 200km/h in 6.1 seconds and to 300km/h in 13.1 seconds. The top speed electrically cut off at 380km/h. this is a definition of a top speed hyper sports car.

expensive cras

2. ROLLS ROYCE SWEPTAIL
PRICE:$13 Million-(NGN 4.77 Billion)

Rolls Royce Sweptail, just designed for one specific customer which the company never revealed his name. The Rolls-Royce Sweptail took four years to develop. Debuted at the 2017 Concorso d’Eleganza Villa d’Este.To make the vehicle astonishingly unique, it’s inspired by the 1925 Phantom I and the 1934 Phantom II.

expensive cars

1. BUGATTI LA VOITURE NOIRE
PRICE:$19 Million-(NGN 6.97 Billion)

Bugatti has unveiled the “La Voiture Noire” translated as “the black car” made entirely from carbon fiber. Bugatti La Voiture Boire is a combination of speed, technology, luxury, and aesthetics. La Voiture Noire uses the same quad-turbo 8.0-liter W16 engine as the Chiron, producing 1,479 horsepower (1,102 kilowatts) and 1,600 Newton-meters (1,180 pound-feet) of torque. Bugatti La Voiture Noire have six exhaust tips, radical new wheels, bespoke fascia, and a gigantic light-up badge outback that spells out the brand name. “the black car” is out of market.

expensive car
expensive cars

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